Medieval History

Selected Sources Full Text Sources Saints' Lives Law Texts Maps Medieval Films Search Help

Selected Sources Sections Studying History End of Rome Byzantium Islam Roman Church Early Germans Anglo-Saxons Celtic World Carolingians 10 C Collapse Economic Life Crusades Empire & Papacy France England Celtic States Nordic Europe Iberia Italy Eastern Europe Intellectual Life Medieval Church Jewish Life Social History Sex & Gender States & Society Renaissance Reformation Exploration
IHSP Credits

Medieval Sourcebook:
Jocelin de Brakelond:
Concerning Loans to the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, 1173

This transaction violated the laws of the Church with respect to the pledge given in sacred vessels and vestments. The rate of interest, it will be seen, was 25 per cent per annum, a rate which was more than the monastery could afford. The protection afforded by the king to the Jews is shown by the message of the almoner summoning the abbot to answer for the financial embarrassment of his monastery and the transaction made.

Whence it happened that every monk who held office had his own seal, and of his own will contracted debts with Christians and Jews. Often the silk vestments and gold vessels and other ornaments of the church were pledged, without the sanction of the brethren. I saw a bond made to William Fitz-Isabel for 1,040 pounds; but I knew neither the cause nor the origin of this. And I saw another bond made to Isaac, the son of Rabbi Joce, for 400 pounds, but I do not know why. And I saw a third bond made to Benedict the Jew of Norwich, for 880 pounds; and this was the origin and cause of this debt. Our buttery was destroyed and William the sacristan undertook willy-nilly to restore it and he secretly borrowed from Benedict the Jew 40 marks at usury, and he gave him a bond sealed with a seal that used to hang near the shrine of St. Edmund, with which the gilds and fraternities were accustomed to seal, but which afterwards, but too late, to the joy of the monks, was broken. When that debt had increased to 100 pounds the Jew came with letters from the lord king about the sacristan's debt; and then at length was revealed what had lain hidden from the abbot and the monks.

Then the abbot was angry and wished to depose the sacristan, alleging the privilege of the lord Pope that he could depose the sacristan whenever he wished. But some one came to the abbot and, speaking for the sacristan, so prevailed upon the abbot that he allowed a bond to be given to Benedict the Jew for 400 pounds, to be repaid at the end of four years, namely for the 100 pounds to which it had already increased at usury, and for another 100 pounds that the same Jew had lent to the sacristan for the abbot's needs. And the sacristan undertook in full chapter to repay all the debt and a bond was made and sealed with the seal of the monks, but the abbot disagreed and did not apply his own seal since that debt did not apply to him. But at the end of four years the debt could not be repaid, and a new bond for 880 pounds was made, to be repaid at stated intervals, namely, 80 pounds a year. And the same Jew had several other bonds for smaller debts, and another bond which was for fourteen years, so that the sum of the debt owing to that Jew was 1,200 pounds. And the almoner of the lord king indicated to the lord abbot that he should go to the king about such great debts.


From: J. G. Rokewode, ed., Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda, (London: Camden Society, 1840), p. 2, reprinted in Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History, (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1936; reprint ed., New York: Biblo & Tannen, 1965), pp. 175-176.

Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg.

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

© Paul Halsall, September 1998


The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 31 May 2024 [CV]